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Artificial Sweeteners

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Artificial sweeteners have been used widely recently. Artificial sweeteners are free calorie. They are used instead of sucrose which is 4Kcal/g. Artificial sweeteners can be effective for diabetic and obese people. According to the low-calorie content of non-caloric artificial (NAS) sweeteners, they are beneficial for reducing weight. Human consumption of NAS have been assessed safe by many different agencies world wide. Usually NAS are more sweet than sucrose. NAS are non-nutritive sweeteners, so they lack functional characteristics of sugar such as, bulking, binding, texturizing, and ferminting. There are many kinds of NAS, some of which aspartame, neotame, saccharin, acesulfame K, and sucralose.

Aspartame is one of NAS that has been used globally for more then 30 year. It is a synthetic combination of two amino acids (aspartic acid and phenylalanine). Aspartame breaking down produces aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol. Methanol in huge amounts can cause toxins. It is 180 times sweeter than sucrose. According to various agencies, there is no association between aspartame and leukemia, haematopoietic neoplasms, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, ovary cancer, and prostate cancer. Aspartame is used in many beverages and food. Aspartame is the sweetener used in diet soda. common side effects of aspartame are headache, dizziness, mood changes, and nausea. Also, people with phenylKetonuria are allergic to aspartame because of phenylalanine.

Neotame is 8000 times sweeter than sucrose. It is made of aspartic acid and phenylalanine, although it is not metabolized to phenylalanine. So people with phenylKetonuria can consume neotame.

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Saccharin is another kind of NAS, which is 500 times sweeter than sucrose. According to a research in 1970s, saccharin is tied to an increase incidence of bladder cancer. Sweet’N Low is a popular brand uses saccharin.

 

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Refereces:

1. Marinovich M, Galli C, Bosetti C, Gallus S, La Vecchia C. Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: Regulatory safety and epidemiological issues. 2017. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027869151300495X 

2. GUTHRIE J, MORTON J. Food Sources of Added Sweeteners in the Diets of Americans. 2017. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002822300000183

3. [Internet]. 2017 [cited 16 October 2017]. Available from: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v514/n7521/full/nature13793.html

4. [Internet]. 2017 [cited 16 October 2017]. Available from: https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19900396238

5. Kroger M, Meister K, Kava R. Low-calorie Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes: A Review of the Safety Issues. 2017. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2006.tb00081.x/full

6. GUTHRIE J, MORTON J. Food Sources of Added Sweeteners in the Diets of Americans. 2017. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002822300000183

 

 

 

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